Joint Statistical Analysis of Images and Keywords with Applications in Semantic Image Enhancement
2012. ACM Multimedia , Osaka, Japan , October 29 - November 2, 2012. p. 489-498.
DOI : 10.1145/2393347.2393417.
With the advent of social image-sharing communities, millions of images with associated semantic tags are now available online for free and allow us to exploit this abundant data in new ways. We present a fast non-parametric statistical framework designed to analyze a large data corpus of images and semantic tag pairs and find correspondences between image characteristics and semantic concepts. We learn the relevance of different image characteristics for thousands of keywords from one million annotated images. We demonstrate the framework's effectiveness with three different examples of semantic image enhancement: we adapt the gray-level tone-mapping, emphasize semantically relevant colors, and perform a defocus magnification for an image based on its semantic context. The performance of our algorithms is validated with psychophysical experiments.
Supplementary material for the statistical framework
- In this publication we use the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW) test to determine the significance values z. There are of course other tests that also estimate whether two distributions are significantly different from each other. An overview is given here, together with an explanation why we favor the MWW test.
- Figure 5 in the article shows the Δz* values for 50 selected keywords. Here is a complete overview for all 2858 keywors and all descriptors.
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